Two-tier programs exist in the minority of affiliate programs; most are simply one-tier. Referral programs beyond two-tier resemble multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing but are different: Multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing associations tend to have more complex commission requirements/qualifications than standard affiliate programs.[citation needed]
The author is opposed to charging a fee for assets under management (AUM). For a lot of beginning investors, AUM doesn’t work because they don’t have enough in assets. He makes the point that the manager will make money even if the assets go down. True. But the manager’s incentives are lined up with yours: the more your money grows, the more they get paid. That’s not necessarily the case with other way that fees are charged. 
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